I like to say that anatomy is the road-and-highway system, activity is the traffic, and oscillations are the traffic lights. So, here you go:
Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.
Selen Atasoy, Isaac Donnelly & Joel Pearson
Nature Communications 7, Article number: 10340 doi:10.1038/ncomms10340
Oscillatory synchrony of prefrontal parvalbumin plays a role in top-down control of attention.
Kim, H., Ährlund-Richter, S., Wang, X., Deisseroth, K., & Carlén, M. (2016). Prefrontal Parvalbumin Neurons in Control of Attention. Cell, 164(1), 208-218.
Pascal Fries and crew add to the mounting evidence that slow vs fast oscillations subserve feedback vs feedforward information flow in the cortex.
Michalareas, G., Vezoli, J., van Pelt, S., Schoffelen, J. M., Kennedy, H., & Fries, P. (2016). Alpha-Beta and Gamma Rhythms Subserve Feedback and Feedforward Influences among Human Visual Cortical Areas. Neuron.
Miller Lab alumnus David Freedman is a winner of the 2016 Troland Research Award from the National Academy of Sciences. Way to go, Dave! Well deserved.
Here’s the link to Neuron’s Best of 2014-2015 Special Issue:
And here’s the paper:
Antzoulatos, E.G. and Miller, E.K. (2014) Increases in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and striatum during category learning. Neuron, 83:216-225. View PDF
Well done, Evan!
Bichot et al find that a particular part of the prefrontal cortex is the source of information about an object when we search for it. In other words, when you look for your missing keys, this is the part of the brain that reminds you what they look like.
Excellent review of how wide-spread brain areas use synchronized rhythms form networks for focusing attention. Very comprehensive and thorough on both a maco and micro-circuit level.
Wang and colleagues present a model of the whole cortex (almost). A gradient of synaptic excitation results in sensory areas show fast responses while cognitive areas show slow integrative activity. Different temporal hierarchies/dynamics coexist in the same networks.
A Large-Scale Circuit Mechanism for Hierarchical Dynamical Processing in the Primate Cortex
Rishidev Chaudhuri, Kenneth Knoblauch, Marie-Alice Gariel, Henry Kennedy, Xiao-Jing Wang
Neuron, Volume 88, Issue 2, 21 October 2015, Pages 419–431
In general, this fits pretty well with our recent study of actual neural dynamics across the cortex:
Siegel, M., Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2015) Cortical information flow during flexible sensorimotor decisions. Science. 19 June 2015: 1352-1355. View PDF
Samaha and Postle report on the close relationship between alpha-band oscillations and human perception, including that individuals with higher alpha frequencies have vision with a finer temporal resolution. Cool.
It is widely thought that the volitional focusing of attention on a sensory input depends on top-down influences from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acting on sensory cortex. However, much of the evidence for this is circumstantial. Halassa et al now provide direct evidence using optogenetic manipulation in mice. When they temporarily disrupted the PFC, mice had trouble focusing on a visual input in the face of an auditory distraction and vice-versa. Moreover, they went on to show that the PFC acts on sensory cortex, not directly but, through the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). Manipulation of thalamocortical circuits showed that behavior depended on PFC interactions with the thalamus, not on PFC interactions with sensory cortex. Further, thalamic activity was correlated with behavioral performance and its manipulation was causal to performance. This all suggests that attention is focused when the PFC acts on sensory cortex via the thalamus.