Xiong, Y., Donoghue, J.A., Lundqvist, M., Mahnke, M. Major, A.J., Brown, E.N., Miller, E.K., and Bastos, A.M. (2024) Propofol-mediated loss of consciousness disrupts predictive routing and local field phase modulation of neural activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press.

Tye, K.M., Miller, E.K., Taschbach, F.H., Benna, M.K., Rigotti, M., Fusi, S. (2024) Mixed Selectivity: Cellular Computations for Complexity. Neuron, PDF

Adam, E., Kowalski, M. Akeju, S. Miller, E.K., Brown, E.N., McCarthy, M.M., Kopell, N.J. (2024) Ketamine can produce oscillatory dynamics by engaging mechanisms dependent on the kinetics of NMDA receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Miller, E.K., Brincat, S.L., and Roy, J.E. (2024) Cognition is an emergent property. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences,

Lundqvist, M., Miller, E.K., Nordmark, J., Liljefors, J., Herman, P. (2024) Beta: Bursts of cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,

Mendoza-Halliday, D., Major, A. J., Lee, N., Lichtenfeld, M.J., Carlson, B., Mitchell, B., Meng, P.D., Xiong, Y., Westerberg, J.A., Jia, X., Johnston, K.D., Selvanayagam, J., Everling, S., Maier, A., Desimone, R., Miller, E.K., and Bastos, A. M. (2024) A ubiquitous spectrolaminar motif of local field potential power across the primate cortex. Nature Neuroscience


Tauber, J.M., Brincat, S.L., Stephen, E.P., Donoghue, J.A., Kozachkov, L., Brown, E.N., and Miller, E.K. (2023) Propofol mediated unconsciousness disrupts progression of sensory signals through the cortical hierarchyJournal of Cognitive Neuroscience  PDF

Chakravarty, S., Donoghue, J., Waite, A.S., Mahnke, M., Garwood, I.C., Miller, E.K., and Brown, E.N. (2023) Closed-loop control of anesthetic state in non-human primates. PNAS Nexus.

Garwood, I.C., Major, A.J., Antonini, M.J., Correa, J., Lee, Y., Sahasrabudhe, A., Mahnke, M.K., Miller, E.K., Brown, E.N. and Anikeeva, P. (2023) Multifunctional fibers enable modulation of cortical and deep brain activity during cognitive behavior in macaques. Science AdvancesDOI: 10.1126/sciadv.adh0974  PDF

Peppercorn, J. Miller, E.K., and Hasselmo, M.E. (2023) Don’t You Worry ‘Bout a Thing: Harnessing the power of music to improve emotional health in oncology. JCO Oncology Practicedoi/10.1200/OP.23.00555

Pinotsis, D.A. and Miller, E.K. (2023) In vivo ephaptic coupling allows memory network formation.  Cerebral Cortex. PDF

Pinotsis, D.A., Fridman, G., and Miller, E.K. (2023)  Cytoelectric Coupling: Electric fields sculpt neural activity and “tune” the brain’s infrastructure. Progress in Neurobiology, PDF

Lundqvist, M. Brincat, S.L., Rose, J. Warden, M.R., Buschman, T.J., Miller, E.K., and Herman, P. (2023)  Working memory control dynamics follow principles of spatial computing.  Nature Communications  PDF

Sanchez-Todo, R., Bastos, A.M., Sola, E.L., Mercadal, B., Santarnecchi, E., Miller, E.K., Deco, G. and Ruffini, G. (2023)  A physical neural mass model framework for the analysis of oscillatory generators from laminar electrophysiological recordings. NeuroImage


Kozachkov, L., Tauber, J., Lundqvist, M., Brincat, S.L., Slotine, J.J., and Miller, E.K. (2022) Robust and brain-like working memory through short-term synaptic plasticity  PLOS Computational Biology,

Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2022) Working memory is complex and dynamic, like your thoughts  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,  PDF

Lundqvist, M., Rose, J., Brincat, S.L., Warden, M.R., Buschman, T.J., Herman, P., and Miller, E.K. (2022) Reduced variability of bursting activity during working memory  Scientific Reports    PDF

Barack, D.L., Miller, E.K., Moore, C.I., Packer, A.M., Pessoa, L. Ross, L.N., and Rust, N.C.  (2022)  A call for more clarity around causality in neuroscience  Trends in Neurosciences.  PDF

Bhattacharya, S., Donoghue, J.A., Mahnke, M., Brincat, S.L., Brown, E.N., and Miller, E.K. (2022) Propofol anesthesia alters cortical traveling waves. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Pinotsis, D.A., and Miller, E.K. (2022) Beyond dimension reduction: Stable electric fields emerge from and allow representational drift. NeuroImage  PDF

Bhattacharya, S., Brincat, S. L., Lundqvist, M., and Miller, E. K. (2022) Traveling waves in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. PLOS Computational Biology.  PDF


Garwood, I.C., Chakravarty, S., Donoghue, J., Kahali, P., Chamadia, S., Akeju, O., Miller, E.K., Brown, E.N. (2021)  A hidden Markov model reliably characterizes ketamine-induced spectral dynamics in macaque LFP and human EEG. PLOS Computational Biology, 17(8), e1009280.   PDF

Bastos, A.M., Donoghue, J.A., Brincat, S.L., Mahnke, M., Yanar, J., Correa, J., Waite, A.S., Lundqvist, M., Roy, J., Brown, E.N. and Miller, E.K. (2021). Neural effects of propofol-induced unconsciousness and its reversal using thalamic stimulation. eLife,

Brincat, S.L, Donoghue, J.A., Mahnke, M.K., Kornblith, S., Lundqvist, M. and Miller, E.K. (2021) Interhemispheric transfer of working memories. Neuron.
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Bastos, A.M., Lundqvist, M., Waite, A.S., Kopell, N. and Miller, E.K. (2020)  Layer and rhythm specificity for predictive routing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  Published November 23, 2020;  PDF

Cruzado, N.A., Tiganj, Z. Brincat, S.L., Miller, E.K., and Howard, M.W. (2020)  Conjunctive representation of what and when in monkey hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex during an associative memory task. Hippocampus.  Published November 11 2020

Pinotsis, D.A. and Miller, E.K. (2020) Differences in visually induced MEG oscillations reflect differences in deep cortical layer activity. Communications Biology.  PDF

Kozachkov, L., Lundqvist, M. Slotine, J.J., and Miller. E.K. (2020) Achieving stable dynamics in neural circuits.  PLOS Computational Biology. PDF

Lundqvist, M., Bastos, A.M., and Miller, E.K. (2020) Preservation and changes in oscillatory dynamics across the cortical hierarchy.  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.  PDF

Ito, T., Brincat, S.L., Siegel, M., Mill, R.D., He, B.J., Miller, E.K., Rotstein, H.G., and Cole, M.W. (2020)  Task-evoked activity quenches neural correlations and variability across cortical areas PLOS Computational Biology.

Sherfey, J., Ardid, S., Miller, E.K., Hasselmo, M.E., and Kopell, N. (2020) Prefrontal oscillations modulate the propagation of neuronal activity required for working memory  Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.  PDF

Gong, X., Mendoza-Halliday, D., Ting, J.T., Kaiser, T., Sun, X., Bastos, A.M., Wimmer, R.D., Guo, B., Chen, Q., Zhou, Y., Pruner, M., Wu, C., Park, D., Barak, B., Boyden, E.S., Deisseroth, K., Miller, E.K., Halassa, M.M., Fu, Z., Bi, G., Desimone, R., Feng, G. (2020) An ultra-sensitive step-function opsin for minimally invasive optogenetic stimulation in mice and macaques  Neuron.  PDF

Liu, Y., Brincat, S.L., Miller, E.K., and Hasselmo, M.E. (2020) Neural population dynamics in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during paired-associate learningJournal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Klein, N., Orellana, J., Brincat, S.L., Miller, E.K., Kass, R. (2020) Torus graphs for multivariate phase coupling analysis. Annals of Applied Statistics.  Volume 14, Number 2, 635-660.  DOI: 10.1214/19-AOAS1300

Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. How Working Memory Works. (2020) In: The Cognitive Neurosciences, 6/e, Gazzaniga, Mangun and Poeppel (eds).


Trainto, C., Nicolai, C., Miller, E.K., and Siegel, M. (2019) Extracellular spike waveform dissociates four functionally distinct cell classes in primate cortex. Current Biology, Aug 22, 2019 DOI:

Pinotsis, D.A., Siegel, M. and Miller, E.K. (2019) Sensory processing and categorization in cortical and deep neural networks. NeuroImage,

Sandhaeger, F., Von Nicolai, C., Miller, E. K., & Siegel, M. (2019). Monkey EEG links neuronal color and motion information across species and scalesElife8, e45645.  PDF

Miller, E.K. and Desimone, R. (2019) Charles Gordon Gross (1936-2019) Neuron, 2019.  PDF

Widge, A.S.,  Zorowitz, S., Basu, I.  Paulk, A., Cash, S., Eskandar, E., Deckersbach, T., Miller, E.K., and Dougherty, D.  (2019) Deep brain stimulation of the internal capsule enhances human cognitive control and prefrontal cortex function. Nature Communications.  PDF

Widge, A.S. and Miller, E.K. (2019) Next-generation clinical brain stimulation: Targeting cognition and networks through neural oscillations.  JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0740  PDF


Miller, E.K., Lundqvist, L., and Bastos, A.M. (2018) Working Memory 2.0  Neuron,  DOI:  PDF

Brincat, S.L., Siegel, M., Nicolai, C., and Miller, E.K. (2018) Gradual progression from sensory to task-related processing in cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  PDF

Widge, A.S., Boggess, M., Rockhill, A.P., Mullen, A., Sheopory, S., Loonis, R. Freeman, D.K., and Miller, E.K.  (2018)  Altering alpha-frequency brain oscillations with rapid analog feedback-driven neurostimulation. PLOS ONE 05 DEC 2018,

Wasmuht, D.F., Spaak, E., Buschman, T.J., Miller, E.K. and Stokes, M.G. (2018) Intrinsic neuronal dynamics predict distinct functional roles during working memory. Nature Communications, Volume 9, Article number: 3499. PDF

Lundqvist, M., Herman, P., and Miller, E.K. (2018)  Working Memory: Delay Activity, Yes! Persistent Activity? Maybe not. Journal of Neuroscience,8 August 2018, 38 (32) 7013-7019; DOI:

Villagrasa, F., Baladron, J., Vitay, J., Schroll, H., Antzoulatos, E., Miller, E.K., and Hamker, F. (2018) On the role of cortex-basal ganglia interactions for category learning: A neuro-computational approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 18 September 2018, 0874-18; DOI: View PDF

Rodu, J., Klein, N., Brincat, S., Miller, E.K. and Kass, R.E (2018) Detecting Multivariate Cross-Correlation Between Brain RegionsJournal of Neurophysiology, 27 JUN, 2018. View PDF

Pinotsis, D.A., Buschman, T.J. and Miller, E.K. (2018) Working Memory Load Modulates Neuronal Coupling. Cerebral Cortex  View PDF

Tiganj, Z., Cromer, J. A., Roy, J. E., Miller, E. K., & Howard, M. W. (2018). Compressed Timeline of Recent Experience in Monkey Lateral Prefrontal Cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 1-16. View PDF

Lundqvist, M., Herman, P. Warden, M.R., Brincat, S.L., and Miller, E.K. (2018) Gamma and beta bursts during working memory read-out suggest roles in its volitional control. Nature Communications. 9, 394   View PDF

Wutz, A., Loonis, R., Roy, J.E., Donoghue, J.A., and Miller, E.K. (2018)  Different levels of category abstraction by different dynamics in different prefrontal areas. Neuron 97: 1-11. View PDF

Bastos, A.M., Loonis, R., Kornblith, S., Lundqvist, M., and Miller, E.K. (2018)  Laminar recordings in frontal cortex suggest distinct layers for maintenance and control of working memory.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. View PDF


Loonis, R.F, Brincat, S.L., Antzoulatos, E.G., and Miller, E.K. (2017) A meta-analysis suggests different neural correlates for implicit and explicit learning. Neuron. 96:521-534  View PDF
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Lindsay, G.W., Rigotti, M., Warden, M.R., Miller, E.K., and Fusi, S. (2017) Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of Prefrontal Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience.  6 October 2017, 1222-17; DOI:   View PDF

Pinotsis, D. A., Brincat, S. L., & Miller, E. K. (2017). On memories, neural ensembles and mental flexibility. NeuroImage157, 297-313.

Jia, N., Brincat, S.L., Salazar-Gomez, A., Panko, M., Guenther, F. and Miller, E.K. (2017)  Decoding of intended saccade direction in an oculomotor brain-computer interface. Journal of Neural Engineering, 2017.

Stokes, M., Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2017) Dynamic coding for flexible cognitive control.  The Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Control, The Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Control, Edited by Tobias Egner, John Wiley & Sons, (Chichester, West Sussex, UK). View PDF


Antzoulatos, E.G. and Miller, E.K. (2016) Synchronous beta rhythms of frontoparietal networks support only behaviorally relevant representations. eLife, 2016;10.7554/eLife.17822  View PDF

Stanley, D.A., Roy, J.E., Aoi, M.C., Kopell, N.J., and Miller, E.K. (2016) Low-beta oscillations turn up the gain during category judgments.  Cerebral Cortex. View PDF

Brincat, S.L. and Miller, E.K (2016) Prefrontal networks shift from external to internal modes during learning  Journal of Neuroscience. 36(37): 9739-9754.  View PDF

Pinotsis, D. A., Loonis, R., Bastos, A. M., Miller, E. K., & Friston, K. J. (2016). Bayesian modelling of induced responses and neuronal rhythms. Brain topography32, 569-582.

Lundqvist, M., Rose, J., Herman, P, Brincat, S.L, Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2016) Gamma and beta bursts underlie working memory.  Neuron.   View PDF »

Fusi, S., Miller, E.K., and Rigotti, M. (2016) Why neurons mix: High dimensionality for higher cognition.  Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 37:66-74  doi:10.1016/j.conb.2016.01.010. View PDF »


Widge, A.S., Zorowitz, S., Link, K., Miller, E.K., Deckersbach, T., Eskandar, E.N., and Dougherty, D.D.  (2015) Ventral capsule/ventral striatum deep brain stimulation does not consistently diminish occipital cross-frequency coupling.  Biological Psychiatry. Dec 18, 2015.

Kornblith, S., Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2015)  Stimulus load and oscillatory activity in higher cortex. Cerebral Cortex. Published online August 18, 2015  View PDF »

Siegel, M., Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2015) Cortical information flow during flexible sensorimotor decisions.  Science. 19 June 2015: 1352-1355. View PDF »

Brincat, S. L., & Miller, E. K. (2015). Frequency-specific hippocampal-prefrontal interactions during associative learning. Nature Neuroscience18(4), 576-581. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2015)  Working memory capacity: Limits on the bandwidth of cognition. Daedalus, Vol. 144, No. 1, Pages 112-122. View PDF »


McKee, J., Riesenhuber, M., Miller, E.K., and Freedman, D.J. (2014) Task dependence of visual and category representations in prefrontal and inferior temporal cortices.  Journal of Neuroscience, 34(48): 16065-16075. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1660-14.2014. View PDF »

Buschman T.J., Miller E.K. (2014)  Goal-direction and top-down control. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Nov 5;369(1655). View PDF »

Roy, J.E., Buschman, T.J., Miller, E.K. (2014) PFC neurons reflect categorical decisions about ambiguous stimuli.  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26:6, 1283-1291. View PDF »

Antzoulatos, E.G. and Miller, E.K. (2014) Increases in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and striatum during category learning.  Neuron, 83:216-225. View PDF »
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Puig, M.V. and Miller, E.K. (2014) Neural substrates of dopamine D2 receptor modulated executive functions in the monkey prefrontal cortex.  Cerebral Cortex, published online May 9, 2014. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2014) Neural mechanisms for the executive control of attention.  In: The Oxford Handbook of Attention. Nobre, K. and Kastner, S. Oxford University Press.  ISBN: 9780199675111

Lindsay, G., Rigotti, M., Warden, M. R., Miller, E. K., & Fusi, S. (2014). Hebbian-inspired rewiring of a random network replicates pattern of selectivity seen in PFC. BMC Neuroscience, 15(1), 1. View PDF »

Puig, M. V., Antzoulatos, E. G., & Miller, E. K. (2014). Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory. Neuroscience, 282, 217-229. View PDF »


Rigotti, M., Barak, O., Warden, M.R., Wang, X., Daw, N.D., Miller, E.K., & Fusi, S. (2013) The importance of mixed selectivity in complex cognitive tasksNature, 497, 585-590, doi:10.1038/nature12160. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. (2013)  The ‘working’ of working memory’  Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15:411-418. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2013) Brain Rhythms for Cognition and Consciousness. In: Neurosciences and the Human Person: New Perspectives on Human Activities A. Battro, S. Dehaene and W. Singer (eds), Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Scripta Varia 121, Vatican City. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Fusi, S. (2013) Limber neurons for a nimble mindNeuron. 78:211-213. View PDF »

Duncan, J. and Miller, E.K. (2013) Adaptive neural coding in frontal and parietal cortex. In: Stuss, D.T. and Knight, R.T. (Eds). Principles of Frontal Lobe Function: Second Edition.

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2013) Cortical circuits for the control of attention.  Current Opinion in Neurobiology.  23:216–222. View PDF »


Buschman, T.J., Denovellis, E.L., Diogo, C., Bullock, D. and Miller, E.K. (2012) Synchronous oscillatory neural ensembles for rules in the prefrontal cortex.  Neuron. 76: 838-846. View PDF »
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Puig, M.V. and Miller, E.K. (2012) The role of prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in the neural mechanisms of associative learning. Neuron. 74: 874-886. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Wallis, J.D. (2012) The prefrontal cortex and executive brain functions. Fundamental Neuroscience, 4th edition.

Silver, M.R., Grossberg, S., Bullock, D., Histed, M. and Miller, E.K. (2012) A neural model of sequential movement planning and control of eye movements: Item-order-rank working memory and saccade selection by the supplementary eye fieldsNeural Networks. 26: 29-58. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2012) Top-Down Control of Attention by Rhythmic Neural Computations. In: Posner, M.I. (ed) Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention.  New York: Guilford Press.


Buschman, T.J., Siegel, M., Roy, J.E. and Miller, E.K. (2011) Neural substrates of cognitive capacity limitations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108(27):11252-5. View PDF »

Antzoulatos, E.G. and Miller, E.K. (2011) Differences between neural activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum during learning of novel, abstract categories. Neuron. 71(2): 243-249. View PDF »

Cromer, J.A., Roy, J.E., Buschman, T.J., and Miller, E.K. (2011) Comparison of primate prefrontal and premotor cortex neuronal activity during visual categorization. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 23: 3355-3365. View PDF »

Cromer, J.A., Machon, M. and Miller, E.K. (2011) Rapid association learning in the primate prefrontal cortex in the absence of behavioral reversals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 23:1823-1828. View PDF »


Warden, M.R. and Miller, E.K. (2010) Task-dependent changes in short-term memory in the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(47):15801-15810. View PDF »

Buschman,T.J. and Miller, E.K. (2010) Shifting the Spotlight of Attention: Evidence for Discrete Computations in CognitionFrontiers in Human Neuroscience. 4(194): 1-9. View PDF »

Cromer, J.A., Roy, J.E., and Miller, E.K. (2010) Representation of multiple, independent categories in the primate prefrontal cortexNeuron, 66: 796-807. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Phelps, E.A. (2010) Preface: Current Opinion in Neurobiology—Cognitive Neuroscience 2010. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20:1-2. View PDF »

Roy, J.E., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., and Miller, E.K. (2010) Prefrontal cortex activity during flexible categorizationJournal of Neuroscience, 30:8519-8528. View PDF »

Seger, C.A. and Miller, E.K. (2010) Category learning in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, Vol. 33: 203-219. View PDF »

Engel, A.K., Friston, K., Kelso, J.A.S., Konig, P., Kovacs, I., MacDonald, A., Miller, E.K., Phillips, W.A., Silverstein, S.M., Tallon-Baudry, C., Triesch, J., Uhlhaas, P. (2010) Coordination in Behavior and Cognition. In: Dynamic Coordination in the Brain, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 267-299.


Siegel, M., Warden, M.R., and Miller, E.K. (2009) Phase-dependent neuronal coding of objects in short-term memoryProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 21341-21346. View PDF »
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Buschman, T.J. and Miller, E.K. (2009) Serial, covert, shifts of attention during visual search are reflected by the frontal eye fields and correlated with population oscillationsNeuron, 63: 386-396. View PDF »

Histed, M.H., Pasupathy, A., and Miller, E.K. (2009) Learning substrates in the primate prefrontal cortex and striatum: sustained activity related to successful actionsNeuron, 63: 244-253. View PDF »
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Miller, E.K. and Wallis, J.D. (2009) Executive function and higher-order cognition: Definitions and neural substrates. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Volume 4, Squire LR (Ed.), pp 99-104. Oxford: Academic Press. View PDF »


Miller, E.K., and Wilson, M.A. (2008) All my circuits: Using multiple-electrodes to understand functioning neural networks.  Neuron, 60:483-488. View PDF »

Meyers, E.M., Freedman, D.J., Kreiman, G., Miller, E.K., and Poggio, T. (2008) Dynamic population coding of category information in the inferior temporal cortex and prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology. 100:1407-1419. View PDF »

Loh, M., Pasupathy, A., Miller, E.K., and Deco, G. (2008) Neurodynamics of the prefrontal cortex during conditional visuomotor associations.  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(3): 421-431. View PDF »

Freedman, D.J. And Miller, E.K. (2008) Neural mechanisms of visual categorization: Insights from neurophysiology.  Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(2):311-29.

Miller, E.K. and Wallis, J.D. (2008) The prefrontal cortex and executive brain functionsFundamental Neuroscience, 3rd edition.


Buschman, T.J. and Miller, E.K. (2007) Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal corticesScience. 315: 1860-1862  View PDF »
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Warden, M.R. and Miller, E.K. (2007) The representation of multiple objects in prefrontal neuronal delay activityCerebral Cortex. 17: i41-i50. View PDF »

Fusi, S., Asaad, W.F., Miller, E.K., and Wang, X.J. (2007) A neural circuit model of flexible sensori-motor mapping: Learning and forgetting on multiple timescalesNeuron. 54: 319-333. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2007)  Rules through recursion: How interactions between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia may build abstract, complex, rules from concrete, simple, ones. In: The Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior, S. Bunge & J. Wallis (eds.), Oxford University Press. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. (2007) The prefrontal cortex: categories, concepts, and cognitive control  In: Memories: Molecules and Circuits, Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences, Bontempi B., Silva A.J., Christen Y. (eds), Heidelberg: Springer.

Miller, E.K. and Buschman, T.J. (2007)  Bootstrapping your brain: How interactions between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia may produce organized actions and lofty thoughts.  In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory (2nd Edition),  Kesner, R.P. and Martinez, J.L. (Eds), Elsevier.

Cacioppo, J.T., Amaral, D.G., Blanchard, J.J., Cameron, J.L., Sue C.C., Crews, D., Fiske, S., Heatherton, T., Johnson, M.K., Kozak, M.J., Levenson, R.W., Lord, C., Miller, E.K., Ochsner, K., Raichle, M.E., Tracie S.M., Taylor, S.E., Young, L.J., and Quinn, K.J. (2007) Social Neuroscience: Progress and Implications for Mental Health. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2: 99-123. View PDF »


Histed, M.H. and Miller, E.K. (2006) Microstimulation of frontal cortex can reorder a remembered spatial sequencePublic Library of Science Biology, Vol. 4, No. 5. View PDF »
Read commentary by Francoise Chanut

Freedman, D.J., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., and Miller, E.K. (2006) Experience dependent sharpening of visual shape selectivity in inferior temporal cortex. Cerebral Cortex. 16: 1631-1644. View PDF »

Muhammad, R., Wallis, J.D., and Miller, E.K. (2006) A comparison of abstract rules in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, the inferior temporal cortex and the striatum. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18: 974-989. View PDF »


Greene, M., Schill, K., Takahasi, S., Bateman-House, A., Beauchamp, T., Bok, H., Cheney, D., Coyle, J., Deacon, T., Dennett, D., Donovan, P., Flanagan, O., Goldman, S., Greely, H., Martin, L., Miller, E., Mueller, D., Siegel, A., Solter, D., Gearhart, J., McKhann, G., and Faden, R. (2005)  Moral issues of human-non-human primate neural grafting.  Science, 309:385-386. View PDF »

Pasupathy, A. and Miller, E.K. (2005) Different time courses for learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Nature, 433:873-876. View PDF »

Nieder, A. and Miller, E.K. (2005) Neural correlates of numerical cognition in the neocortex of non-human primates In: From Monkey Brain to Human Brain, S. Dehaene, J. R. Duhamel, M. Hauser & G.Rizzolatti (eds.) Cambridge, MIT Press.


Nieder, A. and Miller, E.K. (2004) A parieto-frontal network for visual numerical information in the monkeyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101:7457-7462. View PDF »

Nieder, A. and Miller, E.K. (2004) Analog numerical representations in rhesus monkeys: Evidence for parallel processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 16:889-901. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Wallis, J.D. (2004) Volition and the prefrontal cortex. In: The Visual Neurosciences, Chalupa, L.M. and Werner, J.S. (eds.), Cambridge, MIT Press, pp 1546-1560.


Sharma, J., Dragoi, V., Tenenbaum, J.B., Miller, E.K., and Sur, M. (2003) V1 neurons signal acquisition of an internal representation of stimulus locationScience, 300:1758-1763. View PDF »

Wallis, J.D. and Miller, E.K. (2003)  From rule to response: neuronal processes in the premotor and prefrontal cortexJournal of Neurophysiology, 90:1790-1806. View PDF »

Wallis, J.D. and Miller, E.K. (2003)  Neuronal activity in the primate dorsolateral and orbital prefrontal cortex during performance of a reward preference taskEuropean Journal of Neuroscience. 18:2069-2081. View PDF »

Bunge, S.A., Kahn, I. Wallis, J.D., Miller, E.K., and Wagner, A.D. (2003) Neural circuits subserving the retrieval and maintenance of abstract rules. Journal of Neurophysiology. 90:3419-3428. View PDF »

Freedman, D.J., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., and Miller, E.K (2003) A comparison of primate prefrontal and inferior temporal cortices during visual categorization. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(12):5235-5246. View PDF »

Miller, E.K., Nieder, A., Freedman, D.J., and Wallis, J.D. (2003) Neural correlates of categories and concepts. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 13:2:198-203. View PDF »

Miller, E.K., Freedman, D.J., and Wallis, J.D. (2003) The prefrontal cortex: categories, concepts, and cognition.  In: The Physiology of Cognitive Processes, Parker, A., Derrington, A., Blakemore, C. (eds.). Oxford University Press, pp 252-273.

Nieder, A. and Miller, E.K. (2003) Coding of cognitive magnitude: Compressed scaling of numerical information in the primate prefrontal cortexNeuron. 37:149-157. View PDF »
Commentary by Pessoa and Desimone
Commentary by Dehaene

Miller, E.K. and Wallis, J.D. (2003) The prefrontal cortex and executive brain functions. In: Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd Edition, Squire, L.R., Bloom, F.E., Roberts, J.L., Zigmond, M.J., McConnell, S.K., Spitzer, N.C. (eds.), Academic Press, pp 1353-1376.


Nieder, A., Freedman, D.J., and Miller, E.K. (2002) Representation of the quantity of visual items in the primate prefrontal cortex.  Science. 297:1708-1711. View PDF »
News and Views summary by Dehaene

Miller, E.K., Freedman, D.J., and Wallis, J.D. (2002) The prefrontal cortex: categories, concepts, and cognition.  Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences. 357:1123-1136.

Duncan, J. and Miller, E.K. (2002) Cognitive focusing through adaptive neural coding in the primate prefrontal cortex. In: Principles of Frontal Lobe Function, Stuss, D. and Knight, R.T. (eds.), Oxford University Press, pp 278-291.

Freedman, D.J., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., and Miller, E.K. (2002) Visual categorization and the primate prefrontal cortex: Neurophysiology and behavior.  Journal of Neurophysiology, 88, 914-928. View PDF »
View Cover Art

Dragoi, V., Sharma, J., Miller, E.K., and Sur, M. (2002) Dynamics of neural sensitivity in primate V1 underlying local feature discrimination. Nature Neuroscience.

Rainer, G. and Miller, E.K. (2002) Timecourse of object-related activity in the primate prefrontal cortex during a short-term memory task. European Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 1244-1254. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. and Asaad, W.F. (2002)  The prefrontal cortex: conjunction and cognition.  In: Handbook of Neuropsychology, 2nd Edition, Vol. 7: The Frontal Lobes, Grafman, J. (Ed.). Elsevier.


Wallis, J.D., Anderson, K.C., and Miller, E.K. (2001) Single neurons in the prefrontal cortex encode abstract rulesNature, 411:953-956. View PDF »

Freedman, D.J., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., and Miller, E.K. (2001) Categorical representation of visual stimuli in the primate prefrontal cortex. Science, 291:312-316. View PDF »
Nature News Article

Miller, E.K. and Cohen, J.D. (2001) An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex functionAnnual Review of Neuroscience, 24:167-202.  View PDF »
–  Identified as the 5th most-cited paper in Neuroscience (Yeung et al., 2017).
–  Designated a Current Classic by Thomson Scientific as among the most cited papers in Neuroscience and Behavior.

Chelazzi, L., Miller, E.K., Duncan, J., and Desimone, R. (2001) Responses of neurons in macaque area V4 during memory-guided visual search. Cerebral Cortex, 11:761-762.


Miller, E.K. (2000) The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1:59-65.

Rainer, G. and Miller, E.K. (2000) Effects of visual experience on the representation of objects in the prefrontal cortexNeuron, 27:179-189. View PDF »
News and Views by Sekuler and Bennett

Asaad, W.F., Rainer, G., Miller, E.K. (2000) Task-specific neural activity in the primate prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84:451-459. View PDF »

Rainer G. and Miller, E.K. (2000) Neural ensemble states in prefrontal cortex identified using a hidden markov model with a modified EM algorithmNeurocomputing, 32-33: 961-966.

Miller, E.K. (2000) The neural basis of the top-down control of visual attention in the prefrontal cortex. In: Control of Cognitive Processes: Attention and Performance 18, Monsell, S. and Driver, J. (eds.), pp 511-534, MIT Press, Cambridge.

Miller, E.K. (2000) The prefrontal cortex: no simple matterNeuroimage, 11:447-450.

Miller, E.K. (2000) Organization through experience. Nature Neuroscience, 3:1066-1068.


Rainer, G., Rao, S.C., and Miller, E.K. (1999)  Prospective coding for objects in the primate prefrontal cortex.  Journal of Neuroscience, 19:5493-5505. View PDF »

Miller, E.K. (1999) The prefrontal cortex: Complex neural properties for complex behavior.  Neuron, 22:15-17.

Miller, E.K. (1999) Prefrontal cortex and the neural basis of executive functions. In: Attention, space, and action: Studies in cognitive neuroscience, Humphreys, G.W, Duncan, J., and Treisman, A.M. (eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp 251-272.

Miller, E.K. (1999) Straight from the topNature, 401, 650-651.


Rainer, G., Asaad, W.F., and Miller, E.K. (1998) Selective representation of relevant information by neurons in the primate prefrontal cortex. Nature, 393:577-579. View PDF »

Asaad, W.F., Rainer, G. and Miller, E.K. (1998) Neural activity in the primate prefrontal cortex during associative learning.  Neuron, 21:1399-1407. View PDF »

Rainer, G., Asaad, W.F., and Miller, E.K. (1998) Memory fields of neurons in the primate prefrontal cortexProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95:15008-15013. View PDF »

Chelazzi, L., Duncan, J., Miller, E.K., and Desimone, R.  (1998)  Responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex during memory-guided visual search.  Journal of Neurophysiology, 80:2918-2940.


Rao, S.C., Rainer, G., and Miller, E.K. (1997) Integration of what and where in the primate prefrontal cortexScience, 276:821-824. View PDF »

Suzuki, W.A., Miller, E.K. and Desimone R. (1997) Object and place memory in the macaque entorhinal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology. 78:1062-1081. View PDF »


Miller, E.K., Erickson, C.A., and Desimone, R. (1996) Neural mechanisms of visual working memory in prefrontal cortex of the macaque. Journal of Neuroscience. 16:5154-5167. View PDF »


Miller, E.K. (1995) Neocortical mechanisms for visual memory. In: Scale in Conscious Experience: Is the brain too important to be left to biologists to study?, Pribram, K. and King, J. (eds.) Lawrence Erlbaum, London, 105-115.

Desimone, R., Miller, E.K., Chelazzi, L., and Lueschow, A. (1995) Multiple memory systems in the visual cortex. In: The Cognitive Neurosciences, Gazzaniga, M. (ed.) MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 475-486.

Desimone, R., Chelazzi, L., Miller, E.K., and Duncan, J. (1995) Neuronal mechanisms of visual attention. In: Linking Psychophysics, Neurophysiology, and Computational Vision, Papathomas, T.V., Chubb, C.,Gorea, A., and Kowler, E. (eds.) MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 219-226.


Miller, E.K. and Desimone, R. (1994) Parallel neuronal mechanisms for short-term memory. Science 263:520-522. View PDF »

Lueschow, A., Miller, E.K., and Desimone, R. (1994) Inferior temporal mechanisms for invariant object recognition. Cerebral Cortex 5:523-531.

Desimone, R., Miller, E.K., and Chelazzi, L. (1994) The interaction of neural systems for attention and memory  In: Large-Scale Theories of the Brain, Koch, C. and Davis, J.L. (eds.) MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 75-91.

Miller, E.K. (1994) Neocortical memory traces. Behavioral Brain Sciences 17:488-489.

Desimone, R., Chelazzi, L., Miller, E.K., and Duncan, J. (1994) Neural mechanisms for memory-guided visual search. In: Structural and Functional Organization of the Neocortex, Albowitz, A., Albus, A., Kuhnt, U., Nothdurft, H.C., and Wahle, P. (eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 279-285.


Chelazzi, L., Miller, E.K., Duncan, J., and Desimone, R. (1993) A neural basis for visual search in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Nature 363:345-347.

Miller, E.K. and Desimone, R. (1993) Scopolamine affects short-term memory but not inferior temporal neurons. NeuroReport 4:81-84.

Miller, E.K., Li, L., and Desimone, R. (1993) Activity of neurons in anterior inferior temporal cortex during a short-term memory task. Journal of Neuroscience 13:1460-1478.

Li, L., Miller, E.K., and Desimone, R. (1993) The representation of stimulus familiarity in anterior inferior temporal cortexJournal of Neurophysiology 69:1918-1929.

Miller, E.K., Gochin, P.M., and Gross, C.G. (1993) Suppression of visual responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex of the awake macaque by addition of a second stimulus. Brain Research 616:25-29.


Miller, E.K., Li, L., and Desimone, R. (1991) A neural mechanism for working and recognition memory in inferior temporal cortex. Science 254:1377-1379.

Gochin, P.M., Miller, E.K., Gross, C.G., and Gerstein, G.L. (1991) Functional interactions among neurons in inferior temporal cortex of the awake macaque. Experimental Brain Research 84:505-516.

Miller, E.K., Gochin, P.M., and Gross, C.G. (1991) A habituation-like decrease in the responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex of the macaque. Visual Neuroscience 7:357-362.