Erez and Duncan elegantly show that the prefrontal cortex only cares about behavioral (goal) relevance.  Human subjects detected whether images from one of two visual categories were present in a scene.  The prefrontal cortex did not distinguish between the two categories but did distinguish whether an image was one the two categories (i.e., a target) or not (a non-target).

Erez, Y. and Duncan, J. Discrimination of Visual Categories Based on Behavioral Relevance in Widespread Regions of Frontoparietal Cortex.  The Journal of Neuroscience, 9 September 2015, 35(36): 12383-12393; doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1134-15.2015

About the Author

The Miller Lab uses experimental and theoretical approaches to study the neural basis of the high-level cognitive functions that underlie complex goal-directed behavior.